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8 many years) had been randomized to day-after-day calcium supplements (step 1,200 milligrams) for number of years. If you are zero boost in the chance having prostate malignant tumors could have been advertised throughout the good ten.step three-season pursue-up, calcium supplements lead to a serious risk loss in that time spanning from 2 years just after medication arrive at couple of years just after medication concluded (150). Inside a peek at the new literary works blogged in 2009, the us Company for Healthcare Browse and you can Quality revealed that perhaps not most of the epidemiological education located an association ranging from calcium supplements intake and you will prostate cancer tumors (151). The fresh new remark stated that 6 out of 11 observational education were unsuccessful to get mathematically high self-confident connections between prostate cancers and you may calcium consumption. Yet ,, from inside the four knowledge, daily intakes regarding 921 so you’re able to dos,000 milligrams off calcium supplements were discovered to be of this a keen increased risk of developing prostate cancer in comparison to intakes starting out-of 455 to one,000 milligrams/time (151). Inconsistencies certainly knowledge highly recommend state-of-the-art affairs between the chance items to have prostate cancer, and additionally echo the issues of evaluating the result of calcium consumption in 100 % free-life style some body. Like, the point that people with higher dairy and you may/otherwise calcium intakes had been found to be more likely to be involved with healthy life-style or more probably seek medical attention is mitigate the brand new analytical need for a connection having prostate cancers exposure (152).
Numerous observational training and randomized regulated products have increased questions away from the possibility negative effects out-of calcium into the cardiovascular exposure. The research of information throughout the Kuopio Weakening of bones Exposure Basis and you will Cures (OSTPRE) possible study unearthed that profiles away from calcium between ten,555 Finnish people (decades 52-62 years) had an excellent 14% greater risk of making coronary artery problem than the low-enhance pages during the a suggest follow-right up out of 6.75 decades (153). The target study of 23,980 users (35-64 years of age) of the Heidelberg cohort of one’s European Prospective Studies on the Disease and Nourishment cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) observed you to extra calcium consumption is actually certainly from the risk from myocardial infarction (stroke) although not toward risk of heart attack otherwise cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality after a suggest follow-up off 11 years (154). Yet ,, the aid of calcium (?400 mg/go out versus. 0 mg/day) is for the a greater danger of CVD-related death in the 219,059 people, however during the 169,170 girls, as part of the National Institute away from Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Wellness research and you will accompanied getting a hateful period from twelve age. CVD mortality inside males has also been seen to be somewhat high with total (weight reduction including supplemental) calcium consumption of 1,five-hundred mg/time and you can a lot more than (155).
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of https://datingranking.net/de/politische-dating-sites-de/ myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).
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